Molecular Hydro Cavitation HCM®


In the company PRIAXO, its scientists are producing innovative advances in the physical process of cavitation, have driven the research and development of HCM® (Molecular Hydro cavitation) in the field of new technologies for more than twenty years. Its widely tested technology for various industrial sectors improves some characteristics of processes such as hydrolysis in a food matrix, protein fractionation, production of biodiesel and wastewater treatment, among others. Part of the solutions obtained from the use of the cavitation phenomenon in industrial processes is the reduction of costs in each of the operations that make up these processes, the proper management of waste and the use of a technology more environmentally friendly Environment.

To understand the phenomenon of cavitation it is necessary to describe the formation of the bubbles or cavities, which occurs by the induced generation of a pressure pulse whose parameters change depending on the type of cavitation that is performed, Cavitation Hydrodynamic (CH) or Ultrasonic Cavitation (CU). The formed cavities contain vapor of the liquid medium or dissolved volatile reagents that during the collapse of these bubbles these vapours are subject to high conditions of temperature and pressure, generating in this way, highly reactive radicals with a consequent molecular fragmentation achieving structural changes in the molecules. At the chemical level, the cavitation phenomenon reduces the reaction time, increases the reaction performance and increases the efficacy of the catalyst used in the reaction. Last and very important, it can be considered as an initiator of chemical reactions due to the generation of free radicals.

It is known by cavitation to the process where there is a generation, growth and subsequent collapse of vapor bubbles of a liquid fluid. The collapse of these bubbles releases energy that carries high temperatures and local pressure. Thus, cavitation occurs in millions of sites, in a reactor where pressures of thousands of atmospheres and thousands of degrees Kelvin are generated; These aspects are of great importance and should be considered during the cavitation, especially at an industrial level.


Cavitation is a physical phenomenon that occurs with the suction of centrifugal pumps when the suction pressure (vacuum pressure) of the pump, equals the vapor pressure of the liquid. At that point a phase change occurs. Thus, the liquid forms vapor bubbles which then collapse when the system pressure is higher than the vapor pressure of the pure liquid. Hydrocavitation technology uses this principle to cause a decrease in fluid pressure to reach the vapor pressure of the liquid. This translates into a mechanical device that consists of a progressive decrease in the flow area through a horizontal tube.

The decrease in tube diameter up to millimetres or tenths of a millimeter causes fluid pressure to drop to values in which the cavitation phenomenon occurs. The hydrocavitation and the shock waves of the implosion rearrange the molecular structure of the treated fluid, creating active points where the dissociated water molecules bind chemically to the structure or cause oxidation reactions. Depending on the pressure of the process, it is possible to obtain various effects on the fluid, for example, the breakdown of molecular chains, generation of new substances, favoring of specific reactions, or heat transfer.

The energy released during the cavitation process resembles electromagnetic pulses that help reduce the energy required for chemical reactions. This additional phenomenon allows the energy consumption necessary for the reactions or treatment of the fluid, to be minimal. HCM® Technology allows the efficiency and productivity of processes to be increased by up to 20%.


It is defined by hydrodynamic cavitation to the phenomenon where bubbles are formed or Cavities to the reduction of the pressure by the passage of a liquid through a constriction-plate of orifices or a Venturi-tube.

The phenomenon occurs when the local pressure falls below the vapor pressure of the flowing fluid, creating bubbles for a subsequent interaction between them and formation of vapor clouds in the liquid. Subsequently, the collapse of the bubbles formed due to the recovery of the pressure thus releasing a large amount of energy. The simplest way for an approximation to the explanation of bubble formation is Bernoulli’s equation. Bernoulli’s equation indicates that if the velocity of the fluid increases, the dynamic pressure increases as well; Consequently, the static pressure decreases to the point where it reaches the cavitation threshold of the liquid this threshold would be the vapour pressure that thus forms the cavities.


The design of the camera plays a role of great importance in the cavitation process, the geometric shape of the camera allows to generate and control the formation of bubbles. There are two technological configurations for the cavitation chamber design: Orifice plate and Venturi tube. The orifice plate is a plate with one or multiple orifices in which a reduction of the fluid passage is carried out, it can vary in the design from the number of holes to the diameter of the same; Due to the flexibility that is handled in the configuration, the generation of the phenomenon is facilitated.

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